Glossary

 

 Abstract Expressionism is a genre of modern art that used improvised techniques to generate highly abstract forms.

Arc welding is a technique in which metals are welded using the heat generated by an electric arc. (See Welding)

Armature is an open framework on which a sculpture is moulded with clay or similar material.

Assemblage is an artistic process. In the visual arts, it consists of making three-dimensional or two-dimensional artistic compositions by putting together found objects.

Body of work, oeuvre is the total output of a writer or artist (or a substantial part of it).

Centre Five The 'Centre Five' was a group of five sculptors based in Melbourne in the mid 1950's who set about promoting and enhancing contemporary sculpture in Melbourne and beyond. Artists included Julius Kane, Lenton Parr, Inge King, Norma Redpath, Teisutis Zikaras and Vincas Jomantas, together they formed the Centre Five. (Various members came and went over the years resulting in more than five members in total.)

Colour Psychology is the study of colour as a determinant of human behaviour.

Chiaroscuro is an Italian term which literally means 'light-dark'. In paintings the description refers to clear tonal contrasts which are often used to suggest the volume and modelling of the subjects depicted.

Constructivism is a nonrepresentational style of art developed by Russian artists in the early 20th century, characterized chiefly by a severely formal organization of mass, volume, and space, and by the employment of modern industrial materials.

Corrugated iron is a building material consisting of iron or steel sheeting bent into a corrugated form.

Cubism is a style of painting and sculpture developed in the early 20th century, characterized chiefly by an emphasis on formal structure, the reduction of natural forms to their geometrical equivalents, and the organization of the planes of a represented object independently of representational requirements.

Curatorial premise is a set of pre-defined criteria which are used in the selection process of art works.

Cutting techniques: Oxy cutting is a process that uses a mixture of fuel gases (acetylene) and oxygen to 'cut' or melt metals using a flame.

Direct carving is a 20th century term used to describe a less planned approach to carving in which the sculptor carves the finished sculpture without using intermediate models or maquettes.

Fabrication is the building of structures (usually from metal) by cutting, bending, and assembling processes.

Foundry is a workshop or factory for casting metal.

Formalism evaluates works on a purely visual level, considering medium and compositional elements as opposed to any reference to realism, context, or content.

Gwen Frolich (d. 2004) The late Gwen Frolich's connection with the Australian art scene spanned more than three decades, from the beginning of her association, in 1961, when she came to work with Rudy Komon at his influential Sydney gallery. Gwen was not only important to the Sydney art scene, in terms of her professional contribution; she also holds an important place in the history of the Bathurst Regional Art Gallery collection. Shortly before her death in November 2004, Gwen Frolich finalised her bequest of seventy-three works by major Australian artists, valued at over 1.2 million dollars, from her personal collection the Bathurst Regional Art Gallery. The sculptures by Rosemary Madigan, Clement Meadmore, Norma Redpath and both the Ian McKay sculptures featured in Heavy Metal: Sculpture from the Permanent Collection were part of the Gwen Frolich Bequest. (See Rudy Komon)

Futurism was a style of art, literature, music, etc., and a theory of art and life developed in the early 1900s in which violence, power, speed, mechanization or machines, and hostility to the past or to traditional forms of expression were advocated or portrayed.

Haptic drawing is a technique that involves the artist to focus on the subject or stimuli they are drawing while drawing by feel and without looking at the drawing until the whole subject is drawn.

Helen Lempriere National Sculpture Award is one of Australia's most prestigious awards for sculptors in Australia.

High gloss automotive paints are a group of paints that are designed to be used on metal surfaces e.g. car panels, which produce a deep shiny finish.

Humanism is any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate.

Juxtaposition is the act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.

Rudy Komon MBE (1908 – 1982) was an art dealer, wine judge and connoisseur. He established one of the pre-eminent art dealerships in Sydney and introduced a new standard of relationship for the art dealer and artist. Rudy Komon helped launch the careers of some of Australia's most important artists. He has been credited with revitalising the Sydney art scene and transforming the relationship between galleries and artists. (See Gwen Frolich)

Lost Wax method is a process of investment casting in which a refractory mold is built up around a pattern of wax and then baked so as to melt and drain off the wax.

Maquettes are small models or studies in three dimensions for either a sculptural or an architectural project.

McClelland Award for Sculpture is an acquisitive award valued at A$100,000 (2014) which is judged from the McClelland Sculpture Survey exhibition.

Minimalism was a chiefly American movement in the visual arts and music originating in New York City in the late 1960s and characterized by extreme simplicity of form and a literal, objective approach. E.g. sculptor Richard Serra, painter Donald Judd and composer Steve Reich.

Modernism is a genre of art and literature that makes a self-conscious break with previous genres.

Monumentality is a description for works that have the quality of being larger than life; of heroic scale.

Organic movement is a term given to works which explore shapes and movements that originate from nature e.g. animals, plants and humans.

Oxidised, Oxidisation are the terms given to a common form of chemical reaction; the combination of oxygen with various elements and compounds. The corrosion of metals is a form of oxidation, rust on iron for example is iron oxide.

Patina is a green or brown film on the surface of bronze or similar metals, produced by oxidation over a long period.

Relief is a sculptural technique. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.

Rendering in visual art and technical drawing means the process of formulating, adding colour, shading, and texturing of an image

Sculpture by the Sea exhibition in Sydney and Perth is Australia's largest annual outdoor sculpture exhibition. This exhibition was initiated in 1996, at Bondi Beach and it featured sculptures which were made by both Australian and overseas artists. Click here to visit the website.

Site specific is the term given to a work of art that is created, designed, or selected for a specific site.

'Truth to material' is often encountered as a phrase in 19th and 20th-century writings on arts and design, such as woodworking -- is a maxim of the school of thought which believes that the innate qualities of the materials should influence the projects created from them.

Utilitarian functionality refers to an object's design having a greater emphasis on practical elements rather than decoration.

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. Coalescence happens when two, or more, pieces of metal are bonded together by liquefying the places where they are to be bonded and allowing the coalesced liquid to solidify. At the end of this process the two pieces of metal have become one continuous solid.